COMPUTER INTERNET SECURITY
Class and Website

for personal computers at home

The Class Was Given At The Los Angeles FamilySearch Library,
Formerly The Los Angeles Family History Library And Elsewhere.

Los Angeles FamilySearch Library - New Site
Los Angeles FamilySearch Library - Old Site
Genealogy Research At The Los Angeles FamilySearch Library
PC Computer System Care and Maintenance Web Site and Class
Fix PC Computers
Buying a Computer

Revised 5 February 2014.
Jon Schweitzer - Instructor

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. OPERATING SYSTEM
3. BROWSER
4. EMAIL PROGRAM (CLIENT)
5. ACTIVE, SEMI-ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SECURITY PROGRAMS
6. FIREWALL
7. MALWARE: COMPUTING'S DIRTY DOZEN
8. ANTI-VIRUS PROGRAM
9. ANTI-TROJAN PROGRAM
10. SPYWARE, ADWARE AND BOTNET PROGRAMS
11. ROOTKITS (Malware) AND SCANNERS
12. INTRUSION PREVENTION AND DETECTION PROGRAM
13. WIRELESS SYSTEMS
14. SECURITY
15. SECURITY TESTING AND SETTINGS
16. SPAM AND EMAIL PROBLEMS
17. PROBLEMS AND TROUBLESHOOTING
18. BACKUP YOUR FILES AND COMPUTER IMAGING
19. CLEANING OUT FILES AND CORRECTING REGISTRY FILES
20. FREE PROGRAMS AND TOOLS - THE BEST
21. GREAT DOWNLOADS LINKS
22. TECHNICAL HELP AND SUPPORT
23. UPLOADING YOUR HTML TO YOUR WEBSITE USING A SECURE FTP
24. PRIVACY, ANONYMITY AND SECURITY WHEN USING THE INTERNET
25. WEBSITE UNIX AND MICROSOFT HOST SERVERS - FILE AND FOLDER PERMISSIONS
26. PASSWORDS
27. UNSCRUPULOUS BEHAVIOR BY SOFTWARE SUPPLIERS
28. CREDIT
29. MAC SECURITY

USE THE ACTIVE LINKS BELOW TO VISIT EACH WEBSITE.

1. INTRODUCTION
You are at WAR with many enemies when you enter the Internet. You must have many good soldiers guarding your computer door. The items below are only the minimum required for your computer to remain alive.

NEW WARNING #1 The U.S. Department of Homeland Security warns American web users that a flaw in Java software still leaves a serious vulnerability and web users should DISABLE JAVA in all their browsers. See more information HERE and how to disable the browsers HERE. Update you version of Java with the latest security patches.

NEW WARNING #2 The U.S. Department of Homeland Security warns American web users to disable JavaScript in Adobe PDF Reader and Acrobat. See https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/TA12-101B and How to disable Javascript in Adobe Reader HERE and How to disable JavaScript in the common free PDF readers is HERE You can also use another PDF viewer.

Read the security dangers and the reasons why you should make big changes at http://eogn.typepad.com/eastmans_online_genealogy/2004/07/major_windows_s.html

It's a big job but you will be happy with the results.

Summary of security things that you must do so that you don't drown in a sea of problems.
Learn how to do your computer software and security work OR find someone who will:

Update your operating system (Section 2.)
Change settings in your operating system (Section 2.)
Disable your Microsoft Internet Explorer browser and replace with the free "Firefox" browser (Section 3.)
Replace Your Microsoft Outlook email client with the free "Thunderbird" (Section 4.)
Install the free "MailWasher" between your ISP server and your email client (Section 4.)
Install the free Firewall "Comodo" (Section 6.)
Install an Anti-Virus program such as the free "Avast" (Section 8.)
Install an Anti-Trojan program such as the free "Emsisoft Anti-Malware" (Section 9.)
Install a Spyware and Adware program such as the free "SuperAntiSpyware" (Section 10.)
Install an Intrusion Prevention and Detection program such as the free "DriveSentry" (Section 12.)
Install a Rootkit scanner such as the free "Panda Anti Rootkit" (Section 11.)
Install the free Botnet scanner such as "RUBotted" (end of Section 10.)
Run tests on the security of your system (Sections 14. and 15.)
Make additional security changes as required
AND THEN REGULARLY
Update all your security programs
Scan for all types of "bugs"
Clean out files using "CCleaner" or Advanced SystemCare (Section 19.)
Clean and correct registry using the free "Eusing Free Registry Cleaner" and Advanced SystemCare (Section 19.)
Backup your files (Section 18.)
Run tests on the security of your system (Sections 14. and 15.)
AND WHEN YOU DISPOSE OF YOUR COMPUTER
Destroy your hard drive or wipe it clean with a special program (end of Section 14.)

Print out a work sheet of the Summary Items above for yourself or your computer tech.

"Layered protection means running multiple security products so that if one layer fails, another will protect you. All PC users, for example, should have an Anti-Virus scanner, a Spyware scanner and a Firewall. Higher risk users may also need an Anti-Trojan scanner, an intrusion detection program and more." - From Support Alert Free Edition, Issue 118 - 16th February, 2005.

A Web site that asks you questions about your knowledge and computer and then tells you the latest and best free security software you could be using is at: http://www.techsupportalert.com/secwiz

A great summary of computer security is at http://www.techsupportalert.com/how-to-secure-your-pc.php

Before installing new programs and after scanning them for viruses, go offline and turn off all Anti-Virus and all other programs. Before going online, remember to turn on your security programs.

Only be connected to the Internet or be online when you are working on the Internet. Don't be connected when it's not absolutely necessary.

Even after you install and use the security programs below you might have old infections that you might have to work hard to remove.

2. OPERATING SYSTEM
Optional

If you keep using the Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser and/or Outlook email program, it is highly recommended that you install and segregate a separate operating system, Internet and security programs for ONLY Internet use by
1. partitioning your hard drive OR
2. adding another hard drive OR
3. the very best would be to use a second computer and use a special electronic 2 port switch called a KVM with cables to connect your keyboard, mouse and monitor to TWO computers. Cost is under $30 on eBay. To connect one printer to the two PC computers you may use a parallel 2 port bi-directional switch for the older printer OR a 2 way/2 port USB switch box for the newer printer. The cost for either is under $20 on eBay.

Optional
Installing the great Linux operating system instead of the security plagued Microsoft Windows operating system would be the very best bold decision to make but will require more work. See a great article about the Linux program at http://linux.sys-con.com/node/47536
Most of the software for Windows will not work with Linux. An up to date big list of 6488 programs is on the left side of http://www.linuxsoft.cz/en/ Also see http://www.icewalkers.com/Linux/Software/

The Windows operating system has the biggest security problems. Some versions have more security problems than others. The problems are minimized if you download and install the latest security patches or service packs for your version of Windows. Use the "Windows Update" when you click "Start" on your Desktop. I think that you have to use Internet Explorer with the update. You may also go to http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en for the downloads.

For Windows 2000 set the Windows folder options by going to "My Documents", "Tools", "Folder Options", "View" and
Check: "Show hidden files and folders"
Uncheck: "Hide protected operating system files"

For Windows XP Select
"Display the contents of system folders"
Next go to Search and scroll down using the scroll bar on the right. Go down to More advanced options and click.
Be sure the first three boxes are selected:
Search System folders
Search Hidden Files and folders
Search Sub Folders

If you have Windows 2000/XP/NT, turn off (disable) Windows Messaging as described at http://www.pchell.com/support/ipmessaging.shtml OR you must have a firewall to block outside junk messages. You can't disable it in 98 or ME.

If you install any Microsoft operating system, do not activate it online until after you have installed your firewall and other security programs.

3. BROWSER
Use any other browser than the Microsoft browser Internet Explorer. It has the biggest security problems because the cyber terrorists or human scum bags have targeted the weaknesses of the browser because now it is the most popular browser. If you want to stop have problem after problem, running Anti-Virus scans and removing viruses, grief and misery then stop using the security plagued Microsoft Internet Explorer except for updating Windows.

Please read the web site at http://eogn.typepad.com/eastmans_online_genealogy/2004/11/stop_using_inte.html#more

If you come to your senses and stop using Internet Explorer, then look at each of the many Internet browsers at http://www.softpedia.com/get/Internet/Browsers/ and http://www.upsdell.com/BrowserNews/find.htm and choose one that is best for your use. I use the free Mozilla Firefox and it's at http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/ and a review about this browser is at http://www.sitepronews.com/archives/2004/nov/17.html Here is one more free browsers: Opera is at http://www.opera.com/products/ It has small printing problems.

DON'T delete the Internet Explorer program from your computer because you will be FORCED to use Internet Explorer to use your Windows Update feature or access Microsoft's website at http://www.windowsupdate.com/ to download anything.

Instead, disable the Internet Explorer program per this method from Support Alert Free Edition, Issue 121 - 18th May, 2005 at http://www.techsupportalert.com/issues/issue121.htm
"...Instead of removing IE I favor the simple and safer approach of disabling it. Sure, it may not provide the same degree of security as complete removal but that's a small price to pay compared to the cost of potentially de-stabilizing Windows."

There are several disabling techniques but I suggest the method below as it's simple, easy to reverse and doesn't interfere with the operation of the Windows Update service.

Step 1. From IE select Tools/Internet Options/Connections/LAN Settings.
Step 2. Put a tick in the check box next to "Use a Proxy Server for your LAN ..."
Step 3. Type in "0.0.0.0" in the address box and "80" in the Port box. Don't type in the quote marks of course, just what's inside them.
Step 4. Click OK.

What you've done is set up a dummy proxy server 0.0.0.0 that goes nowhere. With these setting IE cannot make an HTML connection to the Internet and vice versa. You have simply and effectively disabled IE.

There's no magic in the 0.0.0.0 address, any dead proxy address would work just as well. I've used that particular address to keep things simple.

If you ever need to re-enable Internet Explorer start it up and select Tools/Internet Options/Connections/LAN Settings from the toolbar and un-check the box "Use a Proxy Server for your LAN ..."...."

Internet Explorer
If you are still determined to use the very troubled Internet Explorer (IE), you should do the following:

Upgrade IE
The Internet Explorer problems are minimized if you have the latest browser or the latest upgrades to your present browser. Download these items from http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/downloads/default.mspx

Delete Temporary Internet And History Files
Deleting the Temporary Internet and History files might eliminate some troublesome junk you have picked up on the Internet. You may choose to have the browser automatically delete these temporary Internet files each time you close the browser. You do this by going to the Tools, then Internet Options, Advanced, Security and clicking "Empty Temporary Internet File folder when browser is closed". Also go to the toolbar and Tools, Internet Options, General, Temporary Internet Files and click Delete Files and then go to History and click Clear History. Suggest you also clean files using the CCleaner (Crap Cleaner) program that is mentioned below in "19. CLEANING OUT FILES".

4. EMAIL PROGRAM (CLIENT)
Security problems also plague the Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Express and to enjoy your Internet surfing again, you must replace the programs with one of the non-Microsoft programs at http://email.about.com/od/windowsemailclients/Windows_Email_Clients.htm I use Mozilla Thunderbird and a review is at http://email.about.com/cs/winclientreviews/gr/moz_thunderbird.htm
If you are still determined to keep the very troubled Outlook or Outlook Express, you should do the following:
Disable Preview Pane
There are several steps that e-mail users can take to block Web bugs; as an added bonus, some of these steps will help curb (but not prevent) the spread of viruses because Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Express makes it far too easy. First of all, turn off the Preview Pane function in Outlook. If the Preview Pane is on, a Web bug may be activated as soon as you select the e-mail from the list of messages in your inbox. To turn the Preview Pane off in Outlook, go to the View menu and uncheck "Preview Pane" or go into Layout and uncheck "Show preview pane". See http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1579

Disable HTML For Email
Be aware that sometimes people embed hidden coding within HTML coding that can execute hidden commands and really cause some harm. Disable it by staying in Outlook or Outlook Express, staying on the Read tab, and checking the box next to "Read all messages in plain text".

Last thing, NEVER open e-mail attachments you didn't know 100% sure were coming. Then, if you knew they were coming, verify with the sender that they truly did send it. Some viruses can forge sender names and make you think someone sent you a virus when they didn't.

If they did send it, save it first and run an anti-virus scan on it to be positive there is no virus lurking in there. Also do the same with anything you download from the Internet, ALWAYS.

Keep some common sense. If you go surfing for hacking tools or hacked programs, chances are you are going to be open to Spyware, viruses, and hacking yourself. Also this happens a lot at porn websites. They will usually be infested with Spyware.

Outlook Express - Restricted Sites – Browser Settings
See http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1579 and make all the settings for "Zone Settings...", "Custom Level ...", and "Active Scripting" .

Read Your Email Offline OR Use MailWasher
The best way to stop Web bugs in their tracks is to read your e-mail while you're not connected to the Internet or use the MailWasher program under 16. SPAM below. MailWasher allows you to review all email on your ISP server and delete all the junk before you download the good email into your email program. After all, if a Web bug can't send information back to the mothership that spawned it, then it's useless. If you're connecting to the Internet via a dial-up modem, going offline is easy - just disconnect. If you're using broadband, like DSL or a cable modem, it's more complicated, but you can do it. However, do you really want to have to disconnect every time you read e-mail, and then reconnect when you're finished? If you're using a modem, the wait can be interminable.

Fortunately, there's a better solution. Several e-mail clients allow you to take the program offline without taking the entire computer offline. This allows you to read email and reconnect immediately again as needed. You get the same effect as a disconnection, but it's far less hassle.

You must delete all spam and possible Web bug infested email before you connect again to the Internet because the infected email might send data back to the mothership or do other mischief.

5. ACTIVE, SEMI-ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SECURITY PROGRAMS or
Real-Time, Scheduled On-Demand and Manual On-Demand Security Programs

An Active or Real-Time security program is always working when you have the computer and Internet turned on.
After installing each Active or Real-Time security program you should check the Windows Task Manager performance for excessive CPU usage in case there are conflicts with other program. There should only be narrow base spikes every 2 or 3 seconds.
The program should be automatically updating itself every day with new definitions.
A Semi-Active or Scheduled On-Demand program may be scheduled to run tests periodically and do its work.
A Passive or Manual On-Demand security program does its work only when you run it.
See http://www.techsupportalert.com/ for many of the best and freeware programs.

WARNING: Installing more than a firewall and one active or real-time security program might severely slow down your computer!

6. FIREWALL AND SECURITY SOFTWARE TESTING COMPANIES

FIREWALL
Having an active software firewall is the single best security protection for your computer. The installation can be difficult and it can sometimes be annoying with the interruptions that are asking your permission to do something. The firewall requires training and updating. There are a number of excellent FREE firewalls.

A Windows Operating system has a default firewall installed and enabled. You must be offline and disable it before you install another firewall. To disable the firewall in XP, Vista or 7, see HERE.

The first recommendation is the FREE Comodo firewall at http://www.personalfirewall.comodo.com/

The second recommendation is the FREE Online Armor Personal firewall at http://www.pcworld.com/article/231805/online_armor_personal_firewall_free.html

The firewall program might alert you if you need an update, but you should check every few months for a new update at the program's website or by using the firewall’s program link to updates.

The firewall default settings are not good enough. You will have to test and make changes to the settings of your firewall to obtain the maximum security. See section 15. for more information.

If you have cable/DSL/Broadband/Wideband and NOT a dialup connection, you will have an opportunity to install a hardware firewall using a router to one or more computers. The hardware firewall is superior to the software firewall. The router is connected between the Broadband line and your computer. The router costs about $25 to $100 on eBay at http://www.ebay.com/ The router must have a firewall. Suggest you research routers by entering the words "best routers" at http://www.google.com/ Here is a list of "best routers" at http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/dslcablerouters/tp/dslcablerouters.htm The router only blocks incoming "things" so you must also have a firewall in your computer to block any unwanted outgoing traffic!

Firewall Website link
http://www.freebyte.com/antivirus/

SECURITY SOFTWARE TESTING COMPANIES
Test results show the best software.
http://www.matousec.com/projects/proactive-security-challenge-64/results.php - personal firewall software
http://www.av-comparatives.org/ - anti-virus software

7. MALWARE: COMPUTING'S DIRTY DOZEN
A wonderful list and explanations of each Malware and what faces you in your battles on the Internet is at http://www.sitepronews.com/archives/2005/oct/21.html

WARNING: It has been reported that the "CNET" (Downloads.com) site supplied downloads with Malware!! Use another site to download software.
See the Malware with downloads from "CNET" (Downloads.com) at http://insecure.org/news/download-com-fiasco.html

8. ANTI-VIRUS PROGRAM
You MUST have an active or real-time anti-virus program installed. Only one active Anti-Virus program should be installed and working, at all times monitoring email, email attachments, surfing Websites and external sources such as DVDs, CDs, floppies and other storage devices.
One of the best free active or real-time programs that has an automatic update every day is Avast at http://www.avast.com/en-au/free-antivirus-download

If your program does not have an automatic update, see if your program can schedule a program update every day from the program's Website.

If you get a notice of a virus and you will be using the Anti-Virus program to remove it, take note of the file location and then you have the choice of only scanning the file that has the virus, to save a lot of time.

A Website where you can link to 10 different Websites that you may use to scan your computer for viruses is at: http://beingpc.com/2010/01/scan-your-pc-online-for-viruses/

Anti-Virus Website link
http://www.freebyte.com/antivirus/

9. ANTI-TROJAN PROGRAM
Anti-Virus and other programs are not good enough to find and remove Trojans. Leading Anti-Virus systems are good at detecting viruses, but relatively poor at Trojan detection. Trojans are malicious programs often used by hackers to attack target computers, usually to provide a backdoor into the system but sometimes just to cause destruction. Remote Access Trojans (RATs) are the most famous class of Trojans and they usually come in two parts - a server that is sent to infect the victim, and a client that the hacker uses to connect to the server after the victim is infected. There are many methods that hackers can use to infect a target with a Trojan, and careful security measures aren't always enough.

WARNING: You should only use the "COMPLETE SCAN" in all passive or on-demand security programs.

You must have at least a passive or on-demand Anti-Trojan program such as the Free "Emsisoft Anti-Malware" after 30 days at http://www.emsisoft.com/en/software/antimalware/ or active or real-time if you pay for it.

If your program does not have an automatic update, see if your program can schedule a program update every day from the program's Website.

If you get a notice of a Trojan and you will be using the Anti-Trojan program to remove it, take note of the file location and then you have the choice of only scanning the file that has the Trojan, to save a lot of time.

Anti-Trojan Website links
http://www.freebyte.com/antivirus/
http://www.windowsecurity.com/faqs/Trojans/
http://www.broadbandreports.com/faq/9721
http://www.broadbandreports.com/faq/7728

10. SPYWARE, ADWARE AND BOTNET PROGRAMS
What are Spyware and Adware?
Spyware and Adware are software snoop on your browsing activity, invade your privacy, and flood you with those horrible popups and more. If you are like most users on the Internet, chances are you are probably infected with these applications. That is why you must have at least one program.

Why does Spyware and Adware affect every Internet user?
All information you enter via the web can be intercepted.
Unauthorized sites can add themselves to your desktop (icons).
Unauthorized sites can add themselves to your Internet favorites.
Your browsing activity can be tracked and monitored.
Your personal information can be sold to other parties without your knowledge or consent.
Your default homepage and settings can be hijacked so you can't change them.
These malicious components not only invade your PC so they cannot be removed, but takes up your hard drive space and slow down your PC!

This junk, that invades your computer from email and websurfing, causes the greatest low-level security annoyances and results in poor overall performances, slow operation of programs, freezes or lockups.

Prevention
A frequently heard question is "how on earth did I get infected with all that Spyware in the first place?"
See http://www.linguistsuccess.com/article_spy.htm

Prevention and removal programs
SpywareBlaster and SpywareGuard are both free active programs. SpywareBlaster will prevent Spyware from being installed and consumes very little system resources. SpywareGuard offers real-time protection from Spyware installation attempts. The two programs work together to prevent infection in Internet Explorer OR Mozilla/Firefox.

Download SpywareBlaster at http://www.javacoolsoftware.com/spywareblaster.html
and SpywareGuard at http://www.javacoolsoftware.com/spywareguard.html

IE/Spyad places over 4000 websites and domains in the Internet Explorer Restricted list which will severely impair attempts to infect your system. It is free.
A great tutorial is at
http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/tutorials/tutorial53.html

You may download this passive list/program at http://www.spywarewarrior.com/uiuc/resource.htm

Scanning, detection and removal programs
The best free passive Spyware scanning, detection and removal program is SuperAntiSpyware. It might find a few more things. It may be downloaded at http://www.superantispyware.com/downloadfile.html?productid=SUPERANTISPYWAREFREE Manually update the program's database every week and run the program at least once a week if you don't use Internet Explorer and Outlook. Scanning speed is average.
Another very good free program is Malwarebytes at: http://www.malwarebytes.org/mbam.php Another excellent free passive Spyware scanning, detection and removal program is Ad-Aware. It may be downloaded free from http://www.lavasoft.com/products/ad_aware_free.php?t=techspecs Manually run the program once a week if you don't use Internet Explorer and Outlook. Scanning speed is very fast.

Spyware Website link
See http://www.freebyte.com/antivirus/

What is a BOTNET - A botnet (also known as a zombie army) is a number of Internet computers that, although their owners are unaware of it, have been set up to forward transmissions (including spam or viruses) to other computers on the Internet. Any such computer is referred to as a zombie - in effect, a computer "robot" or "bot" that serves the wishes of some master spam or virus originator. Most computers compromised in this way are home-based.

Download the free Trend Micro RUBotted scanner at: http://free.antivirus.com/us/rubotted/

How to use RUBotted is at: http://www.ehow.com/how_4485746_use-trend-micro-rubotted.html

11. ROOTKITS (Malware) AND SCANNERS
The Rootkit is a special kind of malicious software tool that infects your computer and hides Trojans, viruses and Malware from your anti-virus scanner and other security products. For information about rootkits, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rootkit
Fortunately there is a new class of detectors to find these Rootkits. The best free Rootkits scanner/detector is Panda Anti Rootkit at http://research.pandasecurity.com/blogs/images/AntiRootkit.zip

12. INTRUSION PREVENTION AND DETECTION PROGRAM
Host Intrusion Prevention System or HIPS is explained at http://www.techsupportalert.com/content/hips-explained.htm

"Current security products like anti-virus software and Spyware scanners have a serious weakness. They are only effective at protecting you from viruses, worms, Trojans and Spyware that are currently listed in their signature databases. They offer limited protection against new Malware products whose signatures are unknown.

Many anti-virus vendors only distribute updates to their signature files on a weekly basis. In the interval between updates your PC is vulnerable to new threats. Unfortunately such threats can propagate across the Internet in hours. That's where IDS and IPS can play a vital role in securing your PC.

These (intrusion prevention and detection programs) products detect Malware trying to get into your PC by its behavior rather than by looking for a characteristic signature. Kind of like a detective catching a thief using his modus operandi rather than his fingerprint. Any of you who use WinPatrol or SpyBot's TeaTimer are actually using a form of IDS. See http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-hips.htm and see all the best programs at http://www.techsupportalert.com/

A very good active or real-time freeware HIPS program is ThreatFire at http://www.techspot.com/downloads/4386-pc-tools-threatfire.html

13. WIRELESS SYSTEMS
They are very vulnerable unless additional security is installed such as basic encryption, router with firewall and other protection. The additional security is required to prevent such things as connection theft, eavesdropping, hacking or network invasion. See all the things you have to do for security at these websites: http://www.practicallynetworked.com/support/wireless_secure.htm and http://compnetworking.about.com/od/wirelesssecurity/tp/wifisecurity.htm

Configure your router to a channel that is NOT #6.

14. SECURITY
Basic Rules
Disable HTML in your email software
Disable ActiveX in Internet Explorer
Never open e-mail attachments until after scanning
Never download anything from untrusted sources
Scan DVDs, CDs and floppy disks before opening them
Try to avoid giving away your IP, especially when it's a static one
Always scan new programs and downloads
Avoid "underground", pirated software, cracks and porn websites
Check for updates for security programs and windows

Note: In a few cases you might have to enable (turn on) the Active-X to download software.

Security tests of your system online
Run all the scans and tests at http://security.symantec.com/sscv6/default.asp?langid=ie&venid=syn only if you have IE or Netscape browsers.
You must make the necessary changes to the settings and configurations of your firewall, browser, email client and operating system to improve security after all the testing.

A Website where you can link to 10 different Websites that you may use to scan your computer for viruses is at: http://beingpc.com/2010/01/scan-your-pc-online-for-viruses/

Security settings links
http://www.georgedillon.com/web/security.shtml
http://www.techspot.com/tweaks/windows_security/index.shtml plus 9 more sections or pages

Free security tools links
http://www.freebyte.com/antivirus/
http://www.broadbandreports.com/faq/8428

Security Website link
http://www.dozleng.com/updates/index.php?act=links is a VERY LARGE list of security things

Disposing of your old computer
E-waste (electronic waste) must be disposed of in a proper manner by sending it to an e-waste recycling facility. If you are disposing of your hard drive, you should destroy it to prevent access to your personal data and identity theft. You can use a hammer to break the hard drive circuit board and disks inside. Wear protective glasses. You may also use special hard drive wiping software to delete everything. See THIS WEBSITE. See http://www.killdisk.com/ for another freeware hard drive wiping program.

15. SECURITY TESTING AND SETTINGS
Browser testing
Use http://www.theregister.co.uk/2003/03/06/scan_your_browsers_security/ and http://www.cyscape.com/showbrow.aspx

Firewall testing
Each computer application uses a "port" or doorway to use the Internet. All the "bad things" on the Internet try to use ports to invade your computer. You must keep these ports closed for your computer's security. The FIREWALL controls the security of the ports!
FAQ about open ports are at http://www.grc.com/faq-shieldsup.htm

Firewall testing for open ports
Close all unnecessary programs before doing the following tests.

Test for the ports that are open at Shields Up! at https://www.grc.com/x/ne.dll?bh0bkyd2
A list of tests is at http://www.firewallguide.com/test.htm

Obtain the free port scanner program pcSuper Scanner at http://www.softpedia.com/get/Network-Tools/Network-IP-Scanner/pcSuper-Scanner.shtml and install it.

Obtain the free Vision Program at Free Tools, Forensic Tools at http://www.mcafee.com/us/downloads/free-tools/vision.aspx that shows the computer programs that are in use and the ports that they are using that are open.

Look at least the results of the pcSuper Screenshot and Vision Screenshot tests to find any open ports that are not being used by your computer applications. You must than close all the unused open ports.

The best way to do that is to configure or make a change to your firewall. Find the firewall users manual on the firewall's CD or go to the firewall's website and obtain a printout of the user's manual. Read the manual to learn how to close the open ports. Look for the "Advanced Rules or Configurations".

There are links to lists of the 65,535 port assignments at http://ports.tantalo.net/

Look at your security logs in your firewall for the Remote Hosts IP numbers that are knocking on the doors or ports. The IP are 4 groups of numbers. Search for the owners of the IP numbers and information at http://whois.arin.net/ui
In the information you will find the range of IP that the port knockers are using.

Firewall Rule Making
Some firewalls allow Rules to be made to block incoming and outgoing traffic. If your firewall allows Rule Making use the Advanced Rules in your firewall to block the ranges of IPs.

This page shows examples of screenshots from a firewall and gives a great deal more detailed information about analyzing firewall logs and setting up "Rules" to block unwanted traffic.

Computer Settings
How to configure TCP/ip filtering in Windows 2000 is at http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=309798

Firewall Settings
Study your firewall user's manual.

Search for a firewall forum or security forum on the Internet for your firewall.

Here are some general links for firewall settings.
http://www.echolink.org/firewall_solutions.htm

16. SPAM AND EMAIL PROBLEMS
Spam
Install the free MailWasher program and it will offer great protection from Web bugs. This program allows you to review all your email and junk Spam on your ISP's server. You delete all junk before saving the good e-mail on your computer. Using the MailWasher program MIGHT reduce the amount of SPAM you receive and allow you to follow the quality of e-mail in the statistics under "Tools".

Download the MailWasher free program at http://www.mailwasher.net/

You have a filtering advantage with spam if you copy the starter Blacklist and Filters into the MailWasher from: http://spamlinks.net/filter-bl.htm and
http://www.spamanti.net/en/domains.php

You must copy and paste only "txt" and the MailWasher must be closed. You may add the Blacklists and Filters at C:\Documents and Settings\"user name"\Application Data\MailWasher\Blacklist.txt OR filters.txt.

To effectively reduce the quantity of email or Spam you must look at with MailWasher, you MUST review all the junk and place the "Subject" or "From" in a filter in "Make Filters" in "My Filters in "Spam Tools" and have the emails "Automatically (without notification)" deleted.

Phishing: (fishing) (n.) "The act of sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft." DO NOT BITE!

Email problems
Read the reason(s) for the bounced email in the bounced email. See some examples of the Email Bounce Back Messages at http://www.hosting.com/support/email/explanation-of-bounceback-or-email-error-messages  The "Error Delivery Codes" are examples like 5.3.0 and 554. See lists of "Error Delivery Codes" at http://www.hmailserver.com/documentation/latest/?page=reference_error_messages_smtp  and  http://www.emailaddressmanager.com/tips/codes.html  and  http://www.sorkincomputer.net/SMTP%20errors.htm

Returned or bounced emails problems - Reasons, see http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/basics/email-bounced-returned-error-message.php  and  http://www.theemailadmin.com/2010/05/5-reasons-for-bounced-email-messages  and  http://asahi-net.jp/en/support/security/undelivered.html

Solutions
Check your security software. Sometimes an anti-virus or firewall problem can prevent your email program from sending or receiving mail. This sometimes happens after virus definition updates or when a firewall is accidentally configured to block email traffic.
To find out if either is causing the problem, simply turn off your antivirus and/or firewall and try using your email program again to see if the problem is now fixed. If it works then your security software is causing the problem.

It will be something wrong with your email or maybe a problem at the receiving end. Contact the receiving domain and see if they have any email problems, policy restrictions or blacklists that may be causing the bounced emails. The receiving domain may have their own Blacklist and/or they may use one or more of the online major Blacklists to check all the incoming emails. The receiving domain is on the right side of the @ in the email address.

Check to see if your IP Address (computer) has been blacklisted by the major Blacklists. Find out what your IP Address is by using a search engine and "What is my IP Address". Copy and paste the IP Address into http://whatismyipaddress.com/blacklist-check to see if your IP Address is blacklisted. Wait at least 8 days and some or many of the Blacklists will drop your IP Address before you try to contact each Blacklist website about their "REMOVAL" process. There are a few FAKE Blacklists that will demand a large amount of personal information and then ask up to $50 to remove the IP Address from their Blacklist.

Use another computer to send your emails until you have fixed your problems.

17. PROBLEMS AND TROUBLESHOOTING
Case study of a very nasty Trojan and the applied solution
A Trojan was detected by the Anti-Virus Program (Program) and the Program was run and the files were deleted or placed in the "Vault" or "Quarantine". After the Program had finished, the Trojan had reproduced itself and was present again. Repeating the Program's work produced the same result.
The placement of the Trojan files in the "Vault" or in "Quarantine" showed that the Program could not properly delete the files. I had to research very hard to find the solution to this problem. I placed the name of the Trojan - "Scagent.A" in Google to look for other people that had the same problem and see if they had the solution to the problem. I found the solution. It was to reboot and press F8 and enter "Safe Mode" and deleted all three files C:\WINNT\httpfilter.dll, C:\WINNT\digfilt.dll and C:\WINNT\system32\scagent.exe and delete them from the recycle bin. The fourth Trojan file in C:\Documents and Settings\... changed with every deletion of the files using the Program. After deleting the three files in "Safe Mode", I ran the Program again to delete the final Trojan file.

If you can't get rid of the virus or Spyware by using the all the programs, you have the options:
l. Update your Anti Program and wait for it to find a permanent solution. This has a very small chance.
2. Record the files that your Program has attempted to delete and enter "Safe Mode" and delete them.
3. Look for another person's solution using Google.
4. Download the free HijackThis at http://www.tomcoyote.org/hjt/ that explains things or http://www.spychecker.com/program/hijackthis.html Do a scan, and copy/paste the log into a new thread at http://www.techguy.org/ The members will look it over and tell you what to remove.

"Program Error" Warnings On Screen
Warning: Sometimes these warnings are a hoax and deleting the item might render your system inoperative.

First Corrective action: You might have a virus in your computer and you should run all your "anti"-programs.

"Iexplorer.exe has generated errors and will be closed by Windows. You will need to restart the program"
Corrective action: Try deleting the temporary Internet files and history. In the browser go to the toolbar and Tools, Internet Options, General, Temporary Internet Files and click Delete Files and then go to History and click Clear History.
See more details at http://ask-leo.com/iexploreexe_has_generated_an_error_now_what.html

"Svchost.exe has generated errors"
Your system is infected with the MsBlast.A virus.
Corrective action: remove virus and install the MS03-026 Microsoft Patch at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.mspx

Deleting problems
If you are having a problem deleting a bad thing, reboot and rapidly press F8 many times and you will be entering the Safe Mode area where you will choose Safe Mode and find your item and delete. Make sure you clean it out of the Recycle Bin immediately.

Another method is right click on the item and choose "Properties" and if the box "Read only" is checked, uncheck it and then try to delete it.

"In some situations you may need to disable System Restore in your Microsoft Windows (98 ME or) XP computer in order to complete a task such as removing a virus or a piece of Spyware." See this link for details. http://www.schrockinnovations.com/disablerestorexp.php

Other problems
If you have the very hard to remove "CoolWWWSearch" (CWS) browser hijacker (misdirected using Google etc.) you can remove it using the very excellent free program "CWShredder" that is downloaded at http://www.majorgeeks.com/download4086.html

A special CoolWWWSearch.SmartKiller detection and removal program is downloaded at http://www.majorgeeks.com/download4113.html

CasinoOnline removal procedure is search for CsRemnd.exe and if found reboot into the Safe Mode by tapping the F8 key just before windows begins to load and find and delete the folder CasinoOnline at C:\Program Files\CasinoOnline. Clean out the Recycle Bin.

When you are having a problem that you can't solve, after you have run all of your programs, place the problem in a few words in Google. Enter Google at http://www.google.com/ There are many excellent forums that have experts addressing problems. The chances are that if you are having a problem, many other persons also have the problem and have found a solution.

Three help Web sites for other problems are at http://www.tek-tips.com/
http://forums.techguy.org/ and http://www.suggestafix.com/

On-line Directory
An on-line directory and search engine for computer and Internet technology definitions is at http://www.webopedia.com/

18. BACKUP YOUR FILES AND COMPUTER IMAGING
The Importance of Backing Up Files
"Computer users should backup files regularly to guard against the loss of data. A backup is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed. To backup means to make a copy of a file or files."

To avoid contaminating your backup, clone or image you must ran all your security programs FIRST. I suggest that you not do daily backups unless you are using ACTIVE security programs that daily scans and removes "THINGS".

Look at a survey of them at http://www.backup-software-reviews.com/

Obtain the best BACKUP freeware at: http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-backup-program

Hard Drive Imaging
"Have you ever had to re-install Windows from scratch? If so you know what a slow and tedious process it can be. But if you take a few precautions there's no need for you ever to do it again." See http://www.techsupportalert.com/partitioning-hard-drives-1.htm Parts 1, 2 and 3.

The best way to backup your computer files or computer hard drive is to do hard drive imaging. If you do the HARD DRIVE IMAGING you will enjoying the full use of your computer again within about 1 hour after a computer crash, virus infection or other major computer failure. See http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2259168,00.asp

Hard Drive Imaging does not completely take the place of backing up your drive. You will have to do incremental backups of the image with or without a schedule using one of the image making or backup programs.

You can place the hard drive image on another internal or external hard drive and in a new partition.

Obtain the best HARD DRIVE IMAGING freeware at:
http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-drive-imaging-program.htm

XXCLONE is a simple hard drive imaging freeware obtained at: http://www.xxclone.com/ A "How to..." is: HERE
The freeware version of XXCLONE does not do incremental backups. XXCLONE will make only a floppy booting disk. Use XXCLONE for placing an image on only on an internal hard drive.

The more complex free Paragon Backup and Recovery 2010 software is obtained here: http://www.paragon-software.com/home/db-express/

19. CLEANING OUT FILES AND CORRECTING REGISTRY FILES
Clean the files in your computer using the FREE CCleaner program downloaded at http://www.ccleaner.com/ I use it once a week. This program will do such an excellent job of cleaning but you MUST be careful what you remove by reviewing the 2 lists of things that can be removed.

Use a registry correcting or cleaning program like the Eusing FREE Registry Cleaner that is downloaded at http://www.eusing.com/free_registry_cleaner/registry_cleaner.htm

Also use the FREE "ALL In One Cleaner, Repair, Protect, and Optimize program" Advanced WindowsCare that is downloaded at http://majorgeeks.com/Advanced_WindowsCare_v2_Personal_d4991.html

Use the last two programs at least once a month or when you remove a program or have a computer or software problem.

If you buy a new PC you must clean out all the JUNK that the vendor or PC manufacturer installed to make money. Read this WEBSITE and use the free PC Decrapifier at: http://www.pcdecrapifier.com/faq

20. FREE PROGRAMS AND TOOLS - THE BEST
See many of the best FREE programs at Gizmo's at http://www.techsupportalert.com/

"Probably the best free security list in the world" is at http://www.techsupportalert.com/content/probably-best-free-security-list-world.htm

A great list of many FREE programs (tools) is at Windows Secrets at http://windowssecrets.com/
and also at http://www.freebyte.com/antivirus/


21. GREAT DOWNLOADS LINK
http://www.freebyte.com/antivirus/

22. TECHNICAL HELP AND SUPPORT
See one the best website at http://www.techsupportalert.com/ See the links to the Guides and Tutorials and other things on left of the page. You may look at all the old Gizmo newsletters at the bottom of http://www.techsupportalert.com/subscribers_area.htm

A great list of many FREE programs (tools) is at Windows Secrets at http://windowssecrets.com/
and also at http://www.freebyte.com/antivirus/

23. UPLOADING YOUR HTML TO YOUR WEBSITE USING A SECURE FTP
If you are uploading to or downloading from an external Website hosting server over the Internet, you must choose the correct secure FTP program.

Choose a freeware secure FTP program from the Best Free FTP Client.

The secure program must support the SFTP or FTPS security protocol. The SFTP or FTPS encrypts your password, keeping it secure too. Choose the program that has the same security protocol supported by your Website hosting company.

The top security protocol is FireFTP at https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/fireftp/ that uses SFTP only with FireFox and with Windows or Mac OS X. It has a 4GB download limit.

The second security protocol is FileZilla athttp://filezilla-project.org/index.php that uses SFTP or FTPS with Windows or Mac OS X.

Look at the features at the program's Website.

Find a tutorial for the setup and using the program on the program's Website.

You may do a comparison of many FTP client software at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_FTP_client_software


24. PRIVACY, ANONYMITY AND SECURITY WHEN USING THE INTERNET
If you want to protect yourself for Identity Theft, hide your IP address of your computer, provide HTTPS encryption, protect yourself from snoopers using Wi-Fi, you will need to use an Anonymous Surfing program.

There are three testing sites that checks the privacy of your Internet connection at http://www.hsinlin.com/tips/anonymous_surfing.html

The best list of anonymous surfing freeware is at http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-anonymous-surfing-service.htm#Hotspot%20Shield

I am using http://www.hotspotshield.com/


25. WEBSITE UNIX AND MICROSOFT HOST SERVERS - FILE AND FOLDER PERMISSIONS
Why will you want to control, change or set the File or Folder Permissions using your FTP program for Website security?

So that viruses or hackers can't change or delete your files or folders.

How to access the "permissions" settings will vary in each FTP program. Find out where to access the permissions in your FTP program.

If you are having security problems of any kind, you should be setting ALL your PERMISSIONS to only READ until you fix the problems. Also change your PASSWORD.

UNIX HOST SERVERS

On a UNIX web server, every file and folder stored on the server has a set of permissions associated with it.


FTP Display of Remote Host Server Folders on right
The Properties of Folder has the PERMISSIONS
The Change File Attributes (Permissions)
The Change File Attributes (Permissions) in a UNIX server
Right click or left click on the folder or file line to bring up the remote permissions or click on the properties.

In the FTP software WS_FTP LE right click on the folder and then left click on the Chmod(UNIX) to get to the remote permissions. See http://deoracle.org/tech-skills-software/file-transfer-protocol/part-four-set-the-www-directory-permissions.html and http://deoracle.org/tech-skills-software/file-transfer-protocol/part-two-set-root-directory-permissions.html

There are three types of people that can normally do stuff to files and folders - the Owner, anyone in a Group, and Others (everyone else or the public). In UNIX, these 3 types of people are referred to using the letters U (for Owner, or User in UNIX-speak!), G (for Group), and O (for Others). What you don't want is a virus or an outsider (Others) hacker changing things.

There are three basic permission settings that can be made to host server files or folders:
* You can only READ the file. For folders, this means listing the contents of the folder.
* You can WRITE or change the file. For folders, this means creating and deleting files in the folder.
* You can EXECUTE (run) the file, if it's a program or script. For folders, this means accessing files in the folder.

The best security is when you have all the files and folders permissions set as only READ.

Most of the above is from this website http://www.elated.com/articles/understanding-permissions/ Also see these two websites for more information: http://www.stadtaus.com/en/tutorials/chmod-ftp-file-permissions.php and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filesystem_permissions

MICROSOFT HOST SERVERS

See the links at http://www.mcmcse.com/microsoft/guides/ntfs_and_share_permissions.shtml and http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc780823%28v=ws.10%29.aspx and http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313075

More information is at these more complicated links about Microsoft servers and general network security at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc982153.aspx, about Microsoft Server 2008 and a very complete free course on network security is at http://www.professormesser.com/free-comptia-security-training/security-plus-videos/ and a network security book used for $1.07 plus $3.99 shipping at http://www.amazon.com/Windows-Server-2008-Security-Resource/dp/0735625042

26. PASSWORDS
Suggest you use a password generator like http://www.pctools.com/guides/password/ for better security.

27. UNSCRUPULOUS BEHAVIOR BY SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SUPPLIERS
Legitimate software and hardware suppliers are also guilty of unscrupulous tactics just like the real bad guys. The legitimate suppliers might place Spyware in their software or hardware. This is more common with freeware and shareware software. They might also make their software or hardware intentionally less than satisfactory so they can sell you a newer updated version later. The moral is don't trust anyone or any software and have the maximum computer security. Scan new software for Spyware.

WARNING: It has been reported that the "CNET" (Downloads.com) site supplied downloads with Malware!! Use another site to download software.
See the Malware with downloads from "CNET" (Downloads.com) at http://insecure.org/news/download-com-fiasco.html

28. CREDIT
Credit is given to many other persons for the information and text that I have given above. Special credit to the material given by Dale Hanks.

29. MAC SECURITY
See http://www.firewallguide.com/macintosh.htm and http://netsecurity.about.com/od/secureyourmaccomputer/

The webmaster assumes no responsibility for any problems that might result from using the above suggestions. They are all standard security procedures and should be considered computer-safe if performed correctly. The computer user must decide and take responsibility for using the above suggestions.


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